The most comprehensive analysis of ladder utilization and resource recovery of lithium battery

The most comprehensive analysis of ladder utilization and resource recovery of lithium battery

Environmental protection: The positive electrode material of the lithium-ion battery contains heavy metal elements such as nickel, cobalt, manganese, lithium, which cause pollution to the environment, water, and the like; the carbonaceous material, graphite, etc. in the negative material, and graphite or the like can cause dust pollution; in addition, The electrolyte of the lithium-ion battery contains a toxic chemical component, which can also cause fluorofluid contamination..

Resource savings: Lithium-ion batteries contain a large number of metal elements, nickel, graphite, etc. Distributed in Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, etc..

Advantage: The ladder utilization and resource recovery of the lithium-ion battery can still be commercialized, because in recent years, the automotive industry has transferred to electricization, and the demand for lithium-ion batteries has increased, which leads to very high prices of precious metal materials. , Metal cobalt price is 600,000 / ton, nickel 100,000 / ton, carbonate 1.70,000 / ton, metal lithium 900,000 / ton.

The market style 1. The policy support was first mentioned in 2012, the “Energy Saving and New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan” announced in the State Council, “Mechanic Lithium Battery Recycling Management Measures ..

.”; 2014 The Office of the State Council announced “Guidance to speed up new energy automobile promotion and application” research and development of recycling policies for dynamic lithium batteries; 2015 Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Development and Reform Commission in “2016-2020 new energy vehicle promotion application financial support policy The notice mentioned “To make electric vehicles and powerful lithium battery companies to undertake waste battery recycling”; 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Commerce, announced a series of policies, to the current So far, there are more than 20 policies that have been recovered for lithium-ion batteries..

In March 2018, the seven ministries jointly announced the latest “Notice on the Pilot Work of New Energy Automobile Power Battery Recycling”. Sir, you can summarize the following four points: the national ministries and commissions advocate the first step-by-step utilization, and then conduct resource recovery; implement the responsibility of the producer, “Who is produced, who is responsible”; establish a recycling of the power lithium battery Use the system to carry out some pilot projects, establish recovery network and information supervision; industry norms are constantly improved, and the national qualification requirements for the company are gradually clear. 2, the overall market size of the lithium-ion battery can be divided into three major categories: consumer battery: with battery on consumer electronics such as mobile phones, ipad, laptops, is mainly based on lithium-cobalt ion batteries; power lithium batteries: used The battery on the new energy car is important for the three-yuan battery.

The commercial vehicle is important is a lithium phosphate ion battery; the energy storage battery: used in the charging station, thermal power station, commercial energy storage, etc. Is a lithium iron phosphate ion battery. What is the ladder use? For example, if the battery is used in a new energy vehicle, the battery is 100% energy when the battery is fully charged.

When the battery is used for a period of time, the electricity amount will attenuate. When the battery is attenuated to 80%, it cannot be used on the car. This has been used in the first phase; from the battery on the car, the battery can be used from 80% -20% of the interval, such as the application at low speed vehicles, electric tricycles, electric motorcycles, charging station energy storage.

, Thermal power station peaks in the field, photovoltaic, etc., the battery can be considered to complete its life cycle, at this time, you can recycle. This is divided into three parts by using the capacity of the entire battery: car, ladder utilization, scrap recycling.

In 2017, the production and sales volume of my country’s new energy vehicles was around 800,000, and the world was a total of 1.3 million; it is expected that my country’s new energy vehicles will reach 3 million, and will reach 5 million..

According to the sales volume of new energy vehicles, the demand for lithium-ion batteries in 2020 will reach 250GWH, and the attenuation of this part is gradually recycled.. According to the demand measurement of new energy vehicle power lithium batteries in recent years, the battery capacity of the passenger battery is from 100% to 80%, and the life is about 5 years.

The commercial car is about 3 years. my country’s new energy car is used in 2014. In this case, by this, the power lithium battery will enter a large-scale retirement phase, in other words, in 2018, it is really starting to do a lithium-ion battery recycle will usher in the new wind, the next rising point.

. According to the estimation of high-workers lithium electricity, major brokers, etc., 2018 expects 11GWH battery retirement, corresponding market space is around 6 billion; 2020 market space is 15 billion, reaching 40 billion in 2023, from 2018 to In 2023, the annual complex increase rate reached 50%, and the recycling of lithium-ion batteries can be said to be the next market style.

. According to statistics, the recovery of lithium-ion batteries in 2017 is 80,000 tons, and the market size is around 30-4 billion..

In this 80,000 tons, the battery dismantling accounts for 95%, and there is no tradder utilization. At present, the reason for the ladder uses market promotion is important. The following points have the following points: the technical safety problem in the previous year is more prominent; , Standardization is not high, more difficult to match the tradder is difficult; the energy storage market has no mass release.

Technology Route 1. Technical Standards my country requires the requirements of “New Energy Automobile Waste Battery Comprehensive Utilization Industry Normative Conditions”: Under wet smelting conditions, the comprehensive recovery utilization of nickel-cobalt manganese is not less than 98%, and the recycling of fire-based smelting Not less than 97%. At present, the leading companies in China have basically reached the standard.

. 2. The performance of these two batteries is not very different.

The cycle life of lithium iron phosphate is longer, and the battery can reach 2000-6000 times from 100% attenuation to 80%.. CATL has done the above-mentioned measurement, and the lithium iron phosphate function after retiring can be used as a battery cell for at least 5 years.

. Lithium iron phosphate, if directly scrapped, dismantled recovery, limited earnings, its components are not worth money, lithium content is very small, 1 ton of lithium iron phosphate recycling economic benefits are around 10,000, if used as a ladder utilization earnings at 30000-40000 Around, since these two aspects, lithium iron phosphate is more suitable for the ladder. 3, the flow of the ladder is divided into three steps: first screening the recycled battery, then carry-on the battery’s string parallel, the third step is used to manage the management, the addition of BMS, design capacity and power match.

General battery capacity and power match ratios are 8: 1, the discharge ratio is 0.125C. Key technologies for ladder use are two: Discrete integration technology: Different batteries have different pack technology, unpacking different single batteries according to the performance, life of the battery module; full life cycle traceability technology: through BMS Supply SOC, SOH, SOP technical indicators to estimate.

National requirements to build new energy vehicles National monitoring and power storage battery recycling traceability integrated management platform, platforms are based on battery production as information carriers, until the battery death is traceable and data records for full life cycle. 4, resource recovery of lithium phosphate life is relatively long, while the cycle life of the ternary battery is around 800-2000 times, relatively short; the safety of the ternary battery is not good, the iron lithium-ion battery is good, the fire point is relatively low, not suitable Field used for energy storage power stations, communication base stations, etc..

In addition, the price of nickel-wateng manganese in the ternary battery is relatively high, even if directly disassembled, the income is also very considerable.. Therefore, in contrast, the ternary battery is more suitable for dismantling recycling.

. The price of the three-yuan battery dismantles is 40,000-50,000 yuan / ton. If the dismantled nickel-cobalt manganese will be used to do the precursor of the ternary material, the price is higher, CATL as an example, unit price is 80,000 yuan / ton.

The resource recovery is divided into two phases: the recycled battery is pre-processed, discharged, removes the outer packaging, and the hand-dismantling separation is separated; then recover. Recycling technology can be divided into three categories: dry method (physical law): Mechanical sorting method: mechanical means broken screening, direct sorting high temperature thermal solution: high temperature incineration, forming steam volatile cold and dry method heat repair: after dry Retreating the recycled crude product into material wet method (chemical method): wet metallurgy: dissolved by chemical reagent: separation ion exchange with reagents: Ion to achieve exchange biological recovery technology: Important is to leak with microorganisms, It is still more difficult to say, technical problems have to be broken..

At present, in the industry, the ternary batteries generally use the wet method, and lithium iron phosphate uses a dry method. This is also a recommended method..

In contrast, the cost of wet method is relatively high, but the purity of the recovered material is relatively high, each has an advantageous. Operation mode 1, US: Producer’s Responsibility Extension + Consumer Deposit System Take TSLA, 2015 TSLA announced Powerwall for energy storage market, and the ladder utilization of lithium-ion batteries. 2, Germany: The producer assumes that the important responsibility is a case for Bosch.

In 2015, it began to use the battery’s tradder to use the recycling, and the recovery rate in 2018 is expected to be more than 50%.. 3, Japan: Legislative + Supporting Battery Production Company Legislation from national level, subsidized for battery production company.

Take Toyota as an example, Toyota is a global mixed car faucet. It began to do waste batteries in 1998. Its recycling is three steps: first establish a recycling network, and then evaluate the recycled battery.

Decomposition and chemical treatment of a battery that completely lose reuse value. In 2015, Feng Tian used Camry Mixed Power Vehicle’s waste battery for Huangshi National Park facilities, and redesigned the energy storage battery management system. 208 Camry batteries can store 85kWH electrical energy, and extend the battery life.

Twice.. 4.

Lead-acid battery recovery In 2016, the product of lead-acid batteries in my country reached 4 million tons. The value of lead has reached 40 billion. From the perspective of technology, the recovery rate of lead-acid batteries in my country can reach 98%, but the actual recovery rate is only 30%, important issues are not to establish a large-scale network.

The recycling principal should implement the extension system of producers’ responsibility, namely automobile production, battery-owned, third-party resource recycling company as the subject of recycling, in which auto production companies are. In business model, establish a recycling network, specialized handling, both organic combination, currently. The future industry competition logic is also important to focus on these two points: establishing a national recycling network, there is a scale effect, can be diluted; breakthrough technology threshold.

At present, there are very few batteries used in my country’s ladders in 2017, and the important issue is economic.. According to the data of the battery alliance, my country’s energy storage is mainly pumping storage energy, and the thermal power station is mainly based on a lead charcoal battery.

The lithium iron phosphate ion battery has not become an important reason for the main body of the ladder. It is to see the figure. , The cost of lead charcoal cells and pumping energy is around 0.

4 yuan / kWh, and the lithium ion battery is 0.7 yuan / kWh..

Taking the Qihadian Power Lithium Battery Liyang Project as an example, the results of the calculation show that the static investment recovery period of the energy storage project is about 6 years. If you have to make an income, it is necessary to operate for 10 years, and the post-tax return rate is 10%..

Although the economics of the ladder is not obvious, with the decline in battery cost, the market that has been used in the future will gradually explode.. Investment M & A 1, my country Tower Tower Company is a large communication infrastructure integrated service company, which is jointly established by my country Telecom, my country Mobile, my country Unicom, is an important part of the network, maintenance and operation of the interior distribution system.

In the beginning of January this year, 17 companies such as Tower and Chongqing Changan, BYD, Yinlong New Energy, Watma, Guoxuan High-class, Sandon New Energy were jointly recycled for lithium iron phosphate. At present, there is currently 12 provinces and cities across the country. More than 3000 base stations.

2, SAIC Ningde’s steam is the faucet of the automotive industry, CATL is a dynamic lithium battery industry leader, two leading to join hands card power lithium battery recycling, March 2018 jointly signed a strategic cooperative memorandum. CATL has completed the acquisition in 2013. The current lithium-ion battery recycling business sector has become one of the three core business.

In 2017, the return of the business sector reached 2.5 billion, the unit price is 80,000 yuan / ton, the gross profit ratio is 27 %, Business accounting reached 13%. 3.


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