In the upcoming electric vehicle revolution, the lithium-ion battery will be a true protagonist, which is a non-movable route in the next decade or even twenty years.. Moreover, once the lithium power lithium battery has been developed under the development of the whole industry, it has a stable, complete and mature support (industrial supporting is a huge moat, the entire industrial chain matures, the investment may have hundreds of trillions, this is any Other new technical routes are difficult to overcome), the technical route of lithium battery lithium batteries is even more difficult to shake.
However, there are also a variety of technical routes inside the lithium-ion battery technology route, which is about lithium cobaltate, lithium titanate, lithium manganate, ferroate, three-yuan battery, etc., friends may pay more attention to these technical routes which is more Advantages. In order to clarify this problem, the author will conduct a series of in-depth discussions in this article.
. Let me talk about lithium cobaltate: The cycle performance is too poor, and a large number of rare metal cobalt, the disadvantage is too obvious, the fate is eliminated. Then, the lithium titanate: high charge ratio, long life; but also has a distinct disadvantage – the energy density is too low, resulting in high cost.
Its characteristics are similar to the super capacitor. This fatal disadvantage also hinders the mainstream route of the power lithium battery, so it cannot stand out in the primary election..
Third, the lithium malamine is low, low cost, high charging magnification; but high temperature performance is poor and poor circulation. Therefore, there is a lot of manganate as a powered lithium battery, but simultaneously add other materials to form a modified battery, such as nickel, cobalt becomes a nickel-cobalt-manganese battery, thereby achieving a balance between various performance..
However, after these improvements, it is no longer a simple manganese acid lithium-ion battery, but has become one of the ternary battery type.. Such discussion shows that lithium manganganate should be eliminated.
In the many technical routes of lithium ion batteries, the two technical routes of lithium iron phosphate VS ternary batteries are the most glue.. Lithium iron phosphate is high, long life, but the energy density is low, the low temperature performance is poor; the energy density of the ternary battery is high, good consistency, low temperature performance, low cost, but the safety performance is not as good as iron Lithium Ion Battery.
Currently, the most mature industrial chain of lithium iron phosphate is in my country, and we have more core technologies in the relevant fields; and the three-yuan battery is represented by Japanese and South Korea, and more mature.. At present, the performance of the dynamic lithium battery has substantially the following seven dimensions: 1, safety 2, energy density 3, cycle life 4, cost 5, charging magnification 6, battery monomer consistency 7, low temperature performance as a qualified technique The route does not have too much shortcomings in any of the above aspects, and it is necessary to do balance in all aspects.
. 1. Safety This aspect is a distinctive advantage of lithium iron phosphate ion battery: the temperature reaches 480 ¡ã will decompose, can pass acupuncture, fire and other harsh tests.
The ternary batteries represented by nickel-cobalt aluminum are decomposed and released at 180 ¡ã, and the reaction is more intense.. This bureau quickly got out, the iron lithium ion battery wins.
2 Not high in density, only 178Wh / kg. The leader of lithium iron phosphate BYD has currently done the energy density of the battery cells at 147WH / kg, and the old master of the BYD battery business declares that the lithium iron phosphate is 160Wh / kg..
This is already quite a great achievement, but it has approached the theoretical upper limit of this battery route energy density, and it is difficult to improve the future.. And the anthogic cobalt aluminum (NCA) ternary battery (TSLA is adopted), the current 18650 battery energy density is 245WH / kg, the 20700 battery used in Model 3 in the future is 300Wh / kg or more.
Many domestic manufacturers choose nickel-cobalt manganese (NCM) ternary lithium ion battery technology route, and its theoretical energy density is on the line of 280Wh / kg, and the lithium-ion battery on Datini drones is used. Current 80% of drone lithium-ion batteries supplied by Guangdong manufacturers. The author looked at the parameters.
When the first-scale production, the energy density of the nickel-cobalt-manganese lithium-ion battery can be achieved by 190WH / kg, the distance theoretical density has a large distance, and there is a large improvement space. In the future, ideally, the energy density can be 230Wh / kg or more, and the energy density of the entire battery pack can still be more than 200Wh / kg, which is about 40% higher than the lithium iron phosphate..
In addition, iron phosphate pressure is relatively low, which results in the same battery capacity, and the volume of lithium iron phosphate is larger.. After comparing the BYD E6 battery pack and the tslamodels battery pack, it concludes that under the same battery capacity, the volume of lithium iron phosphate is more than 48% higher than the nickel-cobalt aluminum.
. Putting the two parameters of energy density and security together to evaluate that we can find that the energy density and security these two indicators are a pair of natural enemies. In fact, we can understand the simplest physics and chemistry knowledge.
The higher the energy density, the more unstable it, the less secure. 3, the cycle life is based on lithium iron phosphate, there is a life life is 2,000 times, Wang Chuanfu said that his tinhyd lithium-ion battery life can reach more than 4,000 times, and there is even articles that the full cycle can reach 20,000 times..
The gap is so big, to repeatedly identify it to have a correct cognition; later discovering that the above statement is “not bad”, just that they have different criteria. The life is only 2,000, which is repeated according to the 1C charging magnification, and the battery capacity is considered to end in the calibration capacity of 80%. (This is an extremely stringent charge and discharge test, the rate of 1C means 1 hour full).
4,000 times in Wang Chuanfu, it is more likely to be under normal conditions of use, according to a large number of results that have been ongoing E6 operations. And the last so-called 20,000 times is the result of the full service cycle. Because the battery capacity is less than the calibration of the calibration does not mean that this battery is completely can’t be used, there is still 80% of the capacity.
At this time, the battery can be taken down, used as the energy storage power station, reasonable temperature in reasonable current reasonable temperature Under useful environment, 20,000 repeated charge. But no matter how, lithium iron phosphate’s life is significantly longer than ternary batteries. The ternary battery is charged with the magnification of 1C, repeatedly charged by 800 times, the actual capacity is below 80% of the calibration capacity, from this perspective, the iron lithium ion battery is even three times the life of the ternary battery.
However, in the actual use, since the consistency of the lithium phosphate ion battery is more difficult to control, the overall life of the iron lithium ion battery cell is short, and there is no life to reach 3 times that exaggerated.. But in any case, the cycle life, the iron lithium win.
4, some people think that the positive material of lithium iron phosphate does not use rare metals, and the ternary battery is used to use a more expensive metal such as cobalt, nickel, so it is considered that the cost of lithium iron phosphate is lower. In fact, it is a misunderstanding of awareness..
Lithium iron phosphate discharge voltage 3.2V, the discharge voltage platform of the ternary battery in 3.8V, the higher discharge voltage means higher battery capacity, which means that the capacity of the ternary battery in the same material consumption Big.
Or in turn, the same: the same capacity battery, the three-yuan battery consumption raw material less. Especially when lithium ion batteries must soared, the price of lithium-ion batteries in the current 150,000 yuan last year, the cost problem of the lithium-ion battery of lithium carbonate is high, according to Guoxuan Data of Li Wei, a high-class chairman, the current cost of the national high-tech ternary battery is 10 ~ 15% lower than ferric lithium ion battery. Now the ternary battery goes to high-aluminum high-nickel, low cobalt technology route, which is reduced to expensive rare metal consumption.
. Last year, global cobalt production is 98,000 tons, 40% of which are used in lithium-ion batteries, and consumption is not very large..
Moreover, cobalt resources are still in a state of seeking, and the current 200,000 / ton price is in history.. Last year, the hot booming battery industry did not drive the soaring cobalt resources.
Many factors caused the current cost of the current iron ion battery to be higher than the ternary battery.. However, we must look at the cost comparison of both the dynamic vision, it is to recognize that the cost of lithium iron phosphate is slightly lower than the ternary battery before the price of lithium carbonate is increased.
. In turn, thinking, if the “cobalt” resources will not seek next year, there are also 4 times or even 5 times that of the same lithium carbonate, then the cost of the three-yuan battery will also increase the boat..
In short, the cost of the two technical routes is not divided into SEM, specifically to a certain point in time, and there is a big relationship with the prices of upstream raw materials.. In the long run, I think the price of 150,000 / tons of lithium carbonate does not have sustainability, because lithium is not a scarce resource, domestic Tianqi lithium industry, the lithium-producing lithium industry has a carbonate production cost per ton of production costs of approximately 29,000 ~ 35,000 is between, and the subsidiary of the Salt Lake Shares is also claims that only 199,000 yuan / ton.
. The current lithium carbonate industry can be described as a profiteering industry, cost of 30,000 yuan, the price of 150,000 yuan, a whole turn of 5 times. Huge profit temptation natural is a crazy expansion.
The companies on the industrial chain are doubled, and the Lithium Lithium Lithium is more expanded. Although the demand will continue to follow, but production Distance is more crazy. In the near future, the price of the upstream raw materials change, the high carbonate and the cost of ternary cost is not known.
. This one, the two. 5, charging the first to say the conclusion, the lithium iron phosphate is greatly leading in terms of charging magnification.
In fact, when expounding battery life, it has been able to conclude that the lithium iron phosphate ion battery is obviously better than ternary batteries at high charge rates.. US A123 Company (now a universal subsidiary) even in the laboratory, 25C rate charging lithium iron-phosphate ion battery (25C magnification charging means 60 ¡Â 25 = 2.
4 minutes to fill the battery). The charge and discharge rate, the iron lithium is greatly won. 6.
Battery monomer consistency uses 7000 small batteries in the battery pack of Nickel-cobalt aluminum Tslamodels, in parallel, if there is a problem, then the consequence is catastrophic because the series battery has one Wood barrel principle, the worst performance of performance affects the overall performance of battery pack. However, the 2014 Qin mixer using lithium iron phosphate has a problem that is a rotten problem, calibration of 13KWH battery, after more than a year, many owners are reflected in the electricity volume of 8kWh, attenuation is powerful. I don’t mean that lithium phosphate life is longer? How can I have this phenomenon, this is actually the problem of battery monomer consistency.
In fact, BYD 2014 “Qin” electric car is used by the battery. Most of them may have no problem. After the battery is returned to the factory, the original performance can be restored, but the battery is problematic after the battery is set.
. In fact, the battery consistency problem is not no way, and the way is important, one is an upgrade process, enhances the level of automation and control accuracy..
The other is to do a large single battery capacity, 2014 Qin used 27AH battery cells, and BYD K9 uses 270AH monomer capacity battery monomer, compared to Qin, K9 problems, there are many more no batteries Consistency problem. Finally, it is also to improve the battery management system (BMS). In this regard, we are indeed lagging behind Europe and America.
. Compared to 2014 Qin, Qin, 2015, was used to use a new battery management system, and the controller is installed on each section of the battery, and the controller is convenient and additional 8 batteries (that is, actual Capacity is greater than nominal). The problem of battery consistency has solved a lot, but in any case, in terms of consistency, lithium iron phosphate is behind the ternary battery.
. This bureau: Three Yuan Sheng. 7, low temperature performance This conclusion is very clear: lithium iron phosphate low temperature performance is poor, three yuan better.
In winter, the battery life has a short mileage, but the lithium iron phosphate ion battery problem is more serious.. But how much is it? Still have to take clear data to talk, just take the new 400-kilometers of BYD E6 as an example, the owner after entering the winter, the owner reflects the continuation of the original 60%, which is 240 kilometers.
. However, this cannot be completely blamed on the battery. According to the simplicity of thermoforms, we will learn that after entering winter, the tire pressure of the car will decrease, and the tire pressure is an important reason for the shortage of life.
When the owner pays attention to tire pressure and foot After the law, the battery can restore 70% to 75% nominal, reaching nearly 300 kilometers of battery life, 100 kilometers less than the nominal 400 km. The question is where the 100 kilometers of life is going? The answer is air conditioning. The traditional fuel-saving energy conversion efficiency is only less than 30%, and the remaining 70% of the energy is distributed in the form of waste heat.
After the winter, the car opens the warm air, and does not exacerive gasoline, as long as the waste heat released by the engine can be sent to the cab.. However, the energy conversion efficiency of electric vehicle motor reached 90%, and there is no additional waste heat.
If the air conditioner is opened in winter, it can only consume energy in the battery.. Therefore, the reduction of the life-fire mileage does not completely blame the low temperature performance of lithium iron phosphate.
. Beiqi EV 200 using the three-yuan battery is significantly reduced in winter, and because the battery is less capacity, the original battery is only 200 kilometers, and only 140 kilometers left after the 30% discount, the drivers are called hard..
For winter, iron phosphate ion batteries also have many ways to address, such as materials nanochemical and carbon cladding, and a simpler and effective way, to install heating devices for battery packs.. In the whole, the effect of low temperature on the phosphate ion battery pack on the overall performance <10%.
In addition, since the ternary battery is more or less to receive a low temperature effect, the actual difference in performance at low temperatures is actually smaller.. However, in any case, low temperature performance has become a short plate of lithium iron phosphate, this game is three yuan wins! The above 7 analyzes, almost cover all aspects of the new energy-lithium battery, although I can’t give a simple Conclusion, directly said who is excellent, but combined with specific application environments, there will be clear answers, because some specific applications will show a bit of a certain aspect, cover some of the disadvantages.
1. The energy storage application context The energy storage power station is in a piece of thousands of thousands of tiles and even tens of thousands of batteries. If the three-yuan battery is used, it is equivalent to putting a ton of bomb.
. Lithium iron phosphate is also in line with the application needs of the energy storage, and the energy storage power station will often be in suburban construction, land and space, obscure the weakness of lithium iron phosphate energy density..
Especially as the energy storage power station of the grid, it is often necessary to charge, and the charging magnification of iron lithium is also satisfied.. In the event of the energy storage application, the disadvantage of lithium iron phosphate is no longer a disadvantage, but the advantage is very highlighted.
. So, when we consider this application scenario, lithium iron phosphate is an unconfilled championship..
2, the drone battery is undoubted, this is another extreme application scene, this area, three yuan lithium ion battery occupies 100% market share. The natural density of the energy density is determined that the iron lithium ion battery will never be applied to the drone..
UAV lithium-ion battery field, three yuan battery. 3, electric bus and electric commercial vehicle these cars have high, space, low weight sensitivity, bus and bus, large passengers, high safety requirements; these cars have long operating time, high supply life requirements, these It has just played the advantages of lithium iron phosphate, obscuring the disadvantages of lithium iron phosphate;, phosphate technology leading BYD will dare to apply pure electric vehicles to the bus and electric forklift, electric truck, etc..
It is confident with the safety of iron lithium ion battery, high charge amplitude, long life. Subsuspect time, the state suspended the Directory declaration of the three-yuan battery bus. In fact, this declared the three-yuan battery in this field without the application of the future, electric bus bus and the commercial vehicle area, and lithium phosphate.
4, the dispute in this field of plug-in hybrid vehicles is also very small, although the current pluggable car is based on lithium iron phosphate, but BYD is ready to start abandoning this technology route.. Starting from Qin Tang 100, BYD’s plug-in hybrid vehicle will be fully turned to nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary batteries.
I think this major cause of this change is that the lithium iron phosphate small unit cell consistency problem. This area, three yuan. 5, pure electric passenger car This is another glue battlefield.
First, the lithium iron phosphate used by the pure electric passenger car is a large monomer, and each monomer capacity is as high as 0.82 kWh, which is ten times more than the monomer used in the plug-in hybrid vehicle..
Taking Qin Ev300 as an example, the whole car is only 58 batteries, which is a zero-head than the 7,000 battery of Models.. Since the battery cell is small, install a control unit on each monomer is also drawn from the cost angle, thereby maximizing consistency problems, and then, the consistency problem of large unit cells is not so prominent.
But this does not mean that lithium iron phosphate wins in the field of pure electric passenger cars, and the situation is much complex.. Because the lithium iron phosphate is low, the weight is larger, which causes pure electric vehicles using lithium iron phosphate ion batteries from major and high energy consumption.
. Compared to Beiqi EV200 hundred kilometers power consumption 14kwh, BYD E5 hundred kilometers should be higher than 16kwh. In addition, the passenger car has a mileage of 46 kilometers, 230 kilometers larger than the bus date.
There is too much mileage in the taxi day, which makes the characteristics of lithium iron phosphate longevity. Come out, and the life of the three-yuan battery is not so fatal for shorter disadvantages; it is safe, private passenger cars are not as harsh, but this is not to say that you can don’t care about safety. The Tslamodels’s ternary battery pack is over 900kg, which is because of the additional protection device to protect the battery pack.
. In short, in the pure electric passenger car, the two battery routes is a state of glue..
Since the average power consumption of 100 kilometers can feel that the energy consumption is also the requirements and direction of the state, the two technical routes may have long been in the pure electric sector for a long time, three yuan slightly. Summarize the above five major applications, we can understand that iron lithium ion batteries and three-yuan batteries have different advantages in their respective specific areas: iron lithium is suitable for energy storage and commercial vehicles; three yuan suitable for plugging mix cars, passenger cars, no Human machine and other fields. Since my country’s new energy cars have taken the lead in explosing in the commercial vehicle field, therefore, I use iron lithium-ion batteries in the past year; with the in-depth of the electric car revolution, the outbreak of passenger cars, the proportion of the three-yuan battery will gradually improve.
But no matter how long it will coexist, the domestic leading battery companies will also choose two legs (while producing ternary batteries and iron lithium-ion batterie.