Science stickers | lithium iron phosphate and three yuan charging lithium battery dispute

Science stickers | lithium iron phosphate and three yuan charging lithium battery dispute

Companies represented by TSLA earliest use of three yuan lithium ion batteries, and the battery life is obvious. BYD has been a representative and persistence of lithium iron phosphate route, and it is believed that lithium iron phosphate has the best safety..

The mini four-wheel drive believes that the childhood after 90 is also from that time, we learned that the battery is not only one-time battery, as well as rechargeable batteries.. After 00, the remote control car has become their favorite, and the controllable can be higher.

. In today’s “Lamborghini”, “Ferrari” has become 10 driver, and the power lithium battery used is also upgraded from the five-race battery of ordinary toys to rechargeable lithium-ion batteries..

It can be said that the battery is everywhere, its use is, the battery is no longer a fantasy of the car, and more and more new energy cars on the road is so. However, as the power lithium battery of the car, its performance is directly related to the battery life and safety..

The type of battery classification battery is actually very much, which can be roughly divided into chemical batteries, physical batteries and bio-batteries according to type.. Such as our usual banquet battery, 5 battery, lithium-ion battery, is a chemical battery.

Capacitor This type is a physical battery, and the microbial battery is a bio-battery.. The electric vehicle is used by chemical batteries, such as nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium-ion batteries, lithium polymer batteries, fuel power batteries, etc.

belong to this type.. From the structure, you can also divide two categories, batteries and fuel power batteries.

. Of course, the battery that is said is not everyone’s daily car battery, but is a common reference to re-rechargeable batteries, where the vehicle-loaded lead-acid battery is only a kind of segmentation..

The fuel power battery is currently applied, and it is not unfolded.. Six kinds of lithium-ion battery lithium-ion batteries are the most common types of batteries on the vast majority of electronics and even time, it has been born in 1970 for nearly half a century, its advantage is high energy density, and the loop service life is long.

. At present, the lithium-ion battery is important to be classified according to the difference of the positive material, because the negative electrode material has little effect on the energy density of the battery, so it is now important to improve the performance of the battery by continuously improving the positive material..

The earliest number of cell materials on the market are lithium titanate, lithium cobaltate, lithium manganese acid, lithium iron phosphate, nickel-manganese and nickel-cobalt aluminum.. Lithium titanate is a lithium ion battery used as a negative electrode material.

Its energy density is very low, and it is apparent to the electric car.. Lithium cobaltate is opposite, it is relatively high, but life and high temperature resistance are relatively poor, mostly used in digital devices such as mobile phones.

. Lithium manganate is low and stable, but the energy density is relatively low..

Therefore, from energy density and safety, the comprehensive performance of lithium iron phosphate ion batteries and three-dimensional lithium-ion batteries have become the mainstream of electric vehicle power lithium batteries, but these two batteries have significant in their own characteristics. difference. Battery energy density ternary lithium phosphate evaluation battery performance quality is the most critical indicator is the concept of battery energy density, battery energy density, and other material density concepts, simply in unit weight or volume under volume.

For more than one, two equidists and weight of ore, there is more impurities, a high content, then there is no doubt high clear content. The energy density of the battery is the same, the content of the ore, the higher the energy density, the higher the energy density, the longer the battery, and the battery energy density is equal to the new vehicle life..

The lithium phosphate ion battery (LFP) is a lithium ion battery having a positive electrode material using lithium iron phosphate, and the ternary lithium ion battery is a lithium that stabilizes the chemical architecture with manganese salt or aluminum salt as a nickel-cobalt or aluminum salt. Ion battery, important NCM (nickel cobalt manganese) and NCA (nickel-cobalt aluminum). Removed by chemical properties, the voltage platform of the lithium phosphate ion battery is low, the energy density of the lithium iron phosphate ion battery is approximately around 140Wh / kg.

The ternary lithium-ion battery voltage is high, the energy density is basically 240Wh / kg. That is, at the weight of the same battery, the energy density of ternary lithium is 1.7 times the energy density of lithium iron phosphate material.

. There is no doubt that in the energy density, the three-dimensional lithium ion battery is obvious, but the energy density of different “formulations” is different (nickel, cobalt, manganese / aluminum different ratios). The energy density of the 21700nca ternary lithium-ion battery cell used in Tsla is 260Wh / kg.

It is the highest production in the electric motor. Its nickel-cobalt aluminum ratio is 8: 1.5: 0.

5, which belongs to “High Nickel Battery”. In the NCM battery, according to the difference in nickel-cobalt manganese, it can be divided into NCM 111, NCM523, NCM622, NCM811 (digital representing nickel-cobalt manganese)..

According to the current requirements of the battery life, the NCM811 of the high nickel is a key breakthrough direction.. Because with the increase in nickel element content, the specific capacity of the ternary positive electrode material is gradually increased, and the energy density of the battery will increase.

. However, from the table, it is obvious that the two NCA811 and NCM811 are obviously excellent, and the NCA route should I take the NCM route? In fact, it is not difficult, and the nickel-cobalt aluminum battery has high requirements, high cost and technical mastery in Japanese Han hands, and the other hand is easy to cause thermal out of control in higher temperatures..

The battery life is not as good as the nickel-cobalt aluminum battery, but the benefit is a more hot-containing three-component thermal stability, so domestic importance nickel-cobalt manganese batteries.. The thermal stability of ferric lithium iron phosphate ternolite phosphate is the best in the lithium ion battery in the vehicle.

The electrical thermal peak is greater than 350 ¡ã C, and when the battery temperature is at a high temperature of 500-600 ¡ã C, its internal chemical composition begins. break down. The thermal stability of the ternary lithium ion battery is poor, and the decomposition is started at 300 ¡ã C.

Therefore, the requirements for the battery management system are very high, to prevent overwhelming protection devices and battery management systems to protect the battery.. Therefore, in high temperature conditions, lithium iron phosphate is relatively high.

. Lithically three-dimensional lithium iron phosphate winter electric car battery life is already a habit, the low temperature performance of lithium iron phosphate ion batteries should be inferior to the ternary lithium ion battery. The lithium iron phosphate ion battery temperature uses the lower limit of -20 ¡ã C, and the discharge performance is poor in a low temperature environment, and the capacity retention ratio at 0 ¡ã C is about 60 to 70%, – 10 ¡ã C is 40 ~ 55%, – 20 ¡ã C.

20 ~ 40%. The lower temperature temperature of the ternary lithium ion battery is preferably -30 ¡ã C, the low temperature discharge performance is good, and the mileage attenuation is less than 15% under the same low temperature in the lithium phosphate ion battery, which is significantly higher than the lithium iron phosphate ion battery..

Of course, in order to prevent the occurrence of obvious mileage decay, most vehicles now have corresponding thermal management to ensure electric vehicle winter performance.. Lithium lithium iron phosphate three-dimensional lithium battery life is that the battery is attenuated after multiple complete charge and discharge, and the electric motor vehicle battery is filld to the original 80% of the electricity, representing the battery.

. The full charge and discharge cycle of the lithium phosphate ion battery is greater than 3,500 times, the electricity is attenuated to the original 80%..

That is to say, if charge and discharge is charged once a day, the lithium iron ion battery will also have a significant decay in nearly 10 years.. The three-dimensional lithium-ion battery is shorter than the lithium phosphate ion battery life.

The complete charge and discharge cycle is greater than 2000 will begin to appear, which is about 6 years, of course, through battery management and vehicle electric control system can also be slightly Extend a little battery life, but can only be slightly delayed. Of course, the electric vehicle battery is made of a plurality of monomer batteries, and its working status is similar to a wooden barrel effect, and a wooden barrel can be rich in water, which does not depend on the longest wooden board, but depends on the shortest. That piece of wooden board.

The battery pack is similar, and only the life of the battery can be close to the level of the unit cell only when the battery performance is high.. Cost three-dimensional lithium iron phosphate is carried out in battery cost, and lithium iron phosphate ion batteries also has a huge advantage.

It does not have precious metals (nickel-cobalt metal elements), so lower production costs. The three-dimensional lithium-ion battery uses a variety of nickel-cobalt manganese materials, and the production of high-nickel batteries is more stringent, and the current cost is relatively high..

And after the development of these years, as a key material, the metal resources such as lithium, cobalt began to be tight, especially metal cobalt, its price rose all the way, the price is 200,000 yuan / ton or more. And one ton of electrolyzed nickel price, there is currently 110,000. Therefore, it is also forced the battery company to 811 route, enhance the content of nickel, reducing the content of cobalt, can also bring cost reduction.

Ni-hydrogen battery nickel-hydrogen battery is currently except for another mainstream electric vehicle power lithium battery outside the lithium ion battery, and it is important to develop in the 1990s. Many hybrid vehicles represented by Toyota are used in this battery. However, in recent years they have gradually been gradually converted with three yuan lithium ion batteries.

. The energy density of the nickel-hydrogen battery is about 70-100Wh / kg, and the battery cell voltage is only 1.2V, which is 1/3 of the lithium ion battery, so it’s a larger number of battery packs in the case of a demand voltage.

. In addition, compared to lithium ion batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries should pay more attention to charging and discharging management of batteries..

This is because the nickel-hydrogen battery has a “memory effect”, and the capacity of the battery will attenuate, overcharged or discharge, which will increase the capacity loss of the battery.. Therefore, the charge and discharge of the nickel-hydrogen battery will control a certain percentage range of the total capacity, prevent excessive charge and discharge from reducing capacity attenuation speed.

. Three-dimensional lithium and lithium iron phosphate struggle from battery energy density, low temperature performance, safety, service life, and cost, lithium iron phosphate ion battery and three-yuan lithium ion battery are all advantages, it is difficult to solve, and there is also a power lithium Ion battery positive material technology route generation differentiation. Companies represented by TSLA earliest use of three yuan lithium ion batteries, and the battery life is obvious.

BYD has been a representative and persistence of lithium iron phosphate route, and it is believed that lithium iron phosphate has the best safety.. However, as BYD turned from phosphate ion battery to a three-dimensional lithium-ion battery, it is clear that the debate of these two battery routes has also been curtain.

. Note, the passenger car uses a three-dimensional lithium-ion battery that does not represent the lithium phosphate ion battery. This is eliminated.

One sentence with Li Xi is that lithium iron phosphate belongs to the bus, and the three yuan lithium electricity is a passenger car. Solid battery is the .

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