On August 9th, according to foreign media reports, with the world’s competition with cleaning energy alternatives, extracting lithium and cobalt battery components may be an important issue. This is a completely modern riddle: what is the battery of the smartphone and the dead livestock floating on the inland river? The answer is lithium – a reactive alkali metal, for our mobile phone, tablet, notebook Computer and electric vehicle supply power. In May 2016, hundreds of protesters will throw the dead fish salked from the inland waters on the local street.
. The local lithium-toxic chemical leak has caused serious damage to the ecosystem..
(Diagram: Bolivia Ataka Plateau. Workers Drilling in the world’s largest saline ground. Their goal is to look for a high level of lithium element content in saline rich in magnesium and potassium.
Since the 21st century, most of the lithium in the world has been extracted in this way, rather than using ore resources.. From the photo, the river is floating a lot of dead fish.
Some witnesses said that they also saw that livestock died in drinking pollution, floating downstream. With the sharp increase in local mining activities, the environment is deteriorating. Lithium-ion batteries are an important part of achieving cleaning energy worldwide.
Tslamodels contains about 12 kilograms of lithium, and more lithium is more lithium in grid storage solutions to balance renewable energy sources.. The world’s demand for lithium is rising in an index level, and the price of lithium during the period 2016 and 2018 has doubled.
. Consulting Company Kane Energy Research Consultant said that the annual output of the lithium-ion industry is expected to rise from the 100 MW (GWH) of 2017 to nearly 800 MW in 2027..
Williamadams, which “Metalbulletin,” Metalbulletin, said that the current demand soaring can be traced back to 2015, when the world began to promote electric vehicles.. Adams said, this has led to a significant increase in the number of projects of lithium, “there are hundreds of projects being prepared.
“. This may be a serious environmental issue. Elsevier analyst Christinavalimaki said: “Our endless thirst for the latest, most smart equipment, leading to one of the largest environmental issues, is the increasingly serious mineral crisis.
Especially the mineral crisis required for the production of batteries. (Illustration: Tariha, Bolivia. Salt merchants are loaded with lithium salt on trucks.
Bolivia’s salt beach is considered to be the highest in the world.. Bolivia Andes Mountain may contain 70% lithium.
Many analysts believe that the extraction of lithium from the brine is more environmentally friendly than extracting from rocks.. However, with the addition of demand, the company may propose lithium from the brine by heating, because this is a more energy consumer.
) In South America, the biggest problem is water. The lithium-mine distribution triangle of the continent covers some areas of Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. Under the local thick salt layer, there are more than half of the lithium metal mineral in the world.
. Here is one of the most dry places on the earth..
This is a real problem, because if you want to extract lithium, the miner must first drill a hole on the salt beach and put the mineral saline pump out of the surface.. Then the mine will make this mineral water to evaporate a few months, first form a mixture of manganese, potassium, borax and lithium salts, then filtrate it and put it in another evaporation cell, according to this cycle.
After 12 to 18 months of filtration, lithium carbonate can be extracted from this mixture – a white gold. This approach is relatively inexpensive and effective, but uses a large amount of water in the entire process – an average extraction of 2,000 gallons of water per ton of lithium..
At Chile Athama, mining activities consumed 65% of water in the region. This has had a huge impact on local farmers – they plant buckwheat and shepherd – in this area, some communities have to obtain water resources from other places..
Even if there is a rich area in water resources. Toxic chemicals of lithium mine are very likely to leak from the evaporation cell to the water supply system. These toxic chemicals include hydrochloric acids for processing lithium elements into available forms, and those waste filtered from salt water in each stage.
In Australia and North America, usually use more traditional methods to exploit lithium elements from rocks, but still use chemicals to extract available lithium. The study of Nevada has found that lithium processing operations have a fishery in a downstream 150 miles..
According to the report of the environmental organization, extracting lithium can prevent soil and lead to air pollution.. In Argentina’s Mrslove salt marsh, the locals claim that the lithium industry pollutes the stream of human and livestock, but also pollutes the irrigation of crops.
. There is often a conflict between Chile, mining companies and local communities. They say that lithium mine is allowed to make the bunch of waste saline pollute the soil, and the canal water is contaminated and there is unnatural blue tones.
. Chile University lithium-ion battery expert Gullermogonzalez said in an interview: “Just like any mining process, mining lithium is invasive, it will destroy the landscape, it will destroy groundwater, pollution Earth and local water well. This is not a green solution – it is not a solution at all.
“But lithium may not be the most problematic composition of modern rechargeable batteries.. It is relatively rich, in theory, can be extracted from seawater, of course, the energy consumption in the extraction process is currently.
. Different key components – cobalt and nickel – easier to have bottleneck problems in the electric vehicle market, and may cause huge environmental costs. Cobalt is important in Congolese Democratic Republic, etc.
, in addition to this, it seems to be found elsewhere.. Its price has been twisted in the past two years.
. According to the CEOs, the Battery Materials, Silananoftchnologies, the statement of Glebyushin, and there is no too much toxicity after mining..
But cobalt is “very terrible”. “One of the biggest challenges in cobalt is that it only contains in a country,” he added. You can directly open the soil and find cobalt, so people have a strong motivation to exploit and sell it, resulting in a lot of unsafe and unethical behavior.
. “Congo is a” handmade mine “home. There, people often use hands to extract cobalt from the soil, often use child labor, and no protective equipment.
There are other questions to consider. When Bolivia started its rich lithium resource from 2010, some people believe that the huge mineral wealth of the huge minerals may bring this poor country to the economic and political influence like the Middle East oil resources..
“They don’t want to raise a new oil output country,” Ivlswedishenvironmentalinstitute, Lisbethdahllof), in his last year, with people with an electric car battery production. Report of environmental impact. In a paper recently published in Nature (Nature) magazine, Yushin and his computers believe that we must develop new battery technology, use more ordinary, more environmentally friendly materials to make batteries.
. Researchers are developing new battery chemical components, use more common, lower toxic materials instead of cobalt and lithium. However, if the energy density of the new battery is lower than the lithium ion battery or more expensive than the lithium ion battery, they may ultimately have a negative impact on the entire environment.
. “Assessment and reducing environmental cost is a problem that is more complicated than originally appearing,” Varemi said, “, for example, if considering traffic and additional packaging requirements, a less durable, but more sustainable equipment Will have more carbon emissions. “University at Birmingham, the focus of the Government investment of 2,46 billion pounds of Fara Challenge is to try to find a new method for recycling lithium ions.
. Australia’s research found that only 2% of the country’s 3300 tons of lithium ion garbage is recycled. The MP3 player and laptop from people will eventually be landed, and the ionic fluid in the metal and electrolyte in the electrode will leak into the environment.
. A research team led by the Birmingham Energy Research Institute is using robotics developed, looking for a method of safely disassembling a lithium-ion battery that may explode from electric vehicles..
In the recycling factory, due to improper storage of lithium ion batteries, or is destroyed by crushing, it is often destroyed by crusher, often causes fire.. Because the lithium ion cathode is degraded over time, they cannot simply put them into new batteries (although some people are working hard to use the old car battery for energy density requirements without such energy storage applications).
“Recycling any battery with chemical ingredients, there is this problem – you don’t know what is in your life cycle,” Zapgo CEO and Steever Warler “said,” Why is this recycling? Most of the mobile phones are not cost-effective. Dr. Gavinharper, which was responsible for the Lithium Recycling Project, said that the manufacturer often confidentially confidentially confidentially in the actual composition of their batteries, which makes the recycling battery more difficult.
. At present, the recycled battery is usually chopped, forming a metal mixture, and then uses fire-based metallurgical technology, which is the so-called combustion..
However, this method is wasted a lot of lithium. British researchers are studying alternative technologies, including biological recovery techniques using bacterial treatment materials, and wet metallurgy technology using chemical solutions, and how to extract lithium from brine. About Harper, it should be a new process to develop a new process, which can safely use lithium-ion batteries throughout the life cycle, and ensure that excessive lithium elements are not extracted from the surface, or let the chemical substances in the old battery Environment causes damage.
“Considering that all materials in these batteries have emerged during the extraction process, we should pay attention to proper storage.. “He said.