New energy vehicles, batteries are key, and it also determines the category of this new energy car.. In electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries are the most mature, most dynamic lithium batteries in the current stage.
. With the continuous development of the fuel power battery, the current industry has formed a preliminary consensus. New energy vehicles will be new energy vehicles with lithium-ion batteries as an active lithium battery and a fuel power battery for the maincent lithium battery.
Survience. On July 10 this year, my country’s Automotive Industry Association announced June car production and sales data..
my country’s automobile production and sales are 1895,000, 20.56 million, down 17.3% and 9.
6%, respectively, in order to drop 12 months.. However, in terms of new energy vehicles, the production of pure electric vehicles in the month was 113,000 and 129,000, respectively, up 78.
0% and 106.7% respectively from the same period of the previous year..
Fuel Power Battery Automotive Production and Buy 508 vehicles and 484 vehicles, respectively, rising 9.8 times and 14.6 times respectively from the same period of the previous year.
. In June, pure electric vehicles were completed by 493,000 vehicles and 490,000 units, respectively, rose 57.3% and 56.
6% respectively from the previous year.. Fuel Power Battery Automotive Production and Work Completed 1170 and 1102, which rose 7.
2 times and 7.8 times higher than the same period of the previous year..
From the above data and the data in previous years, new energy vehicles have become the mainstream of the future of my country’s automobile industry is a general trend, so as the two power lithium batteries of the mainstream mainstream car in the future, what features and performance comparisons What is it? Lithium-ion battery lithium-ion battery is important to refer to a class of batteries used in electrode materials as an important active substance, which is important including two major categories of lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries.. The lithium ion battery in this article is important for lithium ion batteries.
. Lithium-ion battery is a secondary battery, it is important to operate between the lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes, is a battery that can be charged and discharged..
The structure of the lithium-ion battery is important including positive electrode, diaphragm, negative electrode, electrolyte and battery housing. The positive pole: generally lithium manganate or lithium cobaltate, nickel-watery acid (commonly known as ternary), pure manganese acid lithium phosphate is gradually faded due to large volume, poor performance or high performance. Diaphragm: It is a specially molded polymer film, the film has a microporous structure, which allows lithium ions to pass freely, and electrons cannot pass.
Negative electrode: generally graphite, or approximate graphite structure. Electrolyte: It is a carrier of ionically transmitted battery, which is generally composed of a lithium salt and an organic solvent. The important use is to conduct lithium ions between the lithium ion battery, and the negative electrode.
. Battery housing: Divided into steel shell (ranging), aluminum shell, nickel plated iron shell (cylindrical battery), aluminum plastic film (soft pack), etc., important to protect battery.
Lithium ion batteries are important according to the positive electrode material, including lithium manganganate, lithium manganese acid, lithium nickel, three yuan lithium, lithium iron phosphate, etc., is currently a lithium iron-ion battery and a three-dimensional lithium ion battery in terms of carbide. The representative of the former is BYD, the latter is TSLA.
Fuel power battery fuel power battery is a chemical device that directly converts the fuel into electrical energy, also known as electrochemical generator.. It is electrochemical principle, namely the working principle of the original battery, isothermal to store the chemical energy stored in the fuel and oxidant into electrical energy, so the actual process is an oxidative reaction reaction.
. Fuel power battery is important consisting of three parts, electrodes, electrolytes, and external circuits. The electrode of the fuel power battery is an electrochemical reaction site in which the fuel has an oxidation reaction and an oxidant reduction reaction.
It is important that the anode and cathode are generally 200-500 mm, and the structural and general battery are different as a porous structure, and the purpose is to improve The actual operating current density of the fuel power battery. Use of electrolyte to transfer ions and separated fuel gas, oxidation gas. To block two gas mixing results in short circuits in the battery, electrolyte is usually a dense structure.
External circuits typically have a bipolar plate configuration, a bipolar plate having a collection current, a partition oxidant, and a reducing agent, and the performance of reactive gases, and its performance is important to its material characteristics, flow field design and processing technology.. Commonly used fuel power batteries can be divided into proton exchange membrane fuel power cells (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel power cell (SOFC), molten carbonate fuel power battery (MCFC), phosphate power battery (PAFC) ) And alkaline fuel power cells (AFC).
Proton exchange membrane fuel power cells (PEMFC) have a variety of performance advantages, including low operating temperatures, fast start speed, etc., is currently applying more mature and extensive fuel power batteries in global shipments and shipments Aspects occupy the dominant position. Fuel power battery fuel is important is hydrogen, methanol and other hydrocarbon.
The fuel power cell in this paper is important as an example of a hydrogen fuel power battery.. The full-scale comparison of the two batteries is a new energy battery, the lithium ion battery input / output electrical energy.
In fact, the input electrical energy is reserved, and the electrical energy output by the output is output.. Fuel power battery is actually equivalent to the internal combustion engine of traditional cars.
The internal combustion engine is burned oil, only the energy conversion device, is not an energy storage device; the fuel power battery is burn hydrogen, and is also an energy conversion device, not an energy storage device.. The lithium-ion battery is an energy storage device, so strictly, the fuel power battery is not a battery, it is an engine.
Therefore, the fuel power battery is a power generation device, and the lithium ion battery is an energy storage device.. The following table shows the comprehensive comparison of two power lithium batteries, comparative factors include comprehensive performance, cost, policy support, resource constraint, environmental protection, business.
Energy density Energy density refers to the size of the storage energy in a certain space or mass material.. The energy density of the battery is the electric energy released by the battery average unit volume or quality.
. The energy density of the battery is divided into the energy density of the cell and the energy density of the battery system, and the energy density of the battery system is lower than the monomer battery..
The lithium-ion battery system belongs to the closed system. Due to the primary lithium element characteristics, the three-dimensional lithium ion battery that has been currently the highest energy density in the lithium ion battery has been used as an example. The single energy density is only 1.
08MJ / kg (battery pack system) Attenuation 20%). In the future, if you want to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries, you need to rely on the breakthrough of all solid state battery technology, but its energy density is not high..
The fuel power battery system belongs to an open system. The energy density is substantially depending on the amount of hydrogen, the energy density of the hydrogen itself is 143 mJ / kg, and the energy density of the fuel power battery system exceeds 350Wh / kg, and the future follows the hydrogen storage technology Advance, energy density is still very space. Power density power density is the ratio of power lithium battery max output power and battery system quality or volume.
If the lithium-ion battery system is to improve its output power, it is possible to discharge high power. The general solution is to increase the number of batteries, which will increase the weight of the entire battery system. Even if Tesla uses the best energy density, the best energy density is the three-yuan battery, Its battery pack is close to half tons.
. Therefore, the high power discharge and high power discharge of lithium ion battery systems cannot be compatible, and the power density is limited..
The fuel power battery can be understood in nature as a chemical power generation system with hydrogen, so the output power is relatively stable, generally in order to maximize discharge power, as long as the power lithium battery system is added, such as Toyota Mirai is equipped with NiMH batteries.. The fuel power battery system is an open power system, and the output power is increased, and the additional battery will not have a new amount, Toyota Mirai power density reached 2036W / kg.
. Safety Whether it is equipped with a lithium-ion battery or a car with fuel power battery, as long as it is a car so security is the most important indicator. As a closed energy system, the lithium-ion battery is difficult to compatibility from the principle of high energy density and safety, if a high energy density is pushed, then the entire lithium-ion battery system is equivalent to a bomb.
. Therefore, in the mainstream process route, the lithium iron phosphate is high in the mainstream process route, and the battery temperature reaches 500 ~ 600 degrees, and the decomposition is started, and it is basically not too much protection auxiliary equipment..
TELSA is high, but not high temperature, 250 ~ 350 degrees will decompose, and the safety is poor.. Its solution is to connect more than 7,000 batteries, which greatly reduces the danger of single battery leakage, explosion.
. But if you analyze the incidents of TSLA cars, or a slight collision is either static, but the battery is on fire, so there are still many problems in their safety..
The fuel power battery itself is very safe. It is used for the car, so its security is important from the hydrogen storage system..
However, through a large number of experiments, the safety of hydrogen is not poor compared to the two common car combustible gases and hydrogen compared to gasoline and natural gas.. Moreover, the car hydrogen storage device is carbon fiber material, which can be done in a multi-angle collision test in 80km / h speed.
. Even if the car accident leads to the disclosure, since the hydrogen explosion requires high concentration, it has already begun to combust before the explosion, but it is difficult to explode..
Moreover, the hydrogen is light, and the hydrogen from the overflow system will rise quickly, but in turn protect the body and passengers to some extent.. Therefore, with commercialization, its overall safety is controllable.
. Reliability of the reliability battery refers to the probability of a battery that causes its loss of electric energy storage capacity..
The reliability of lithium-ion batteries is greatly related, but it is not a concept.. Safety accidents in lithium ion batteries will inevitably lead to their loss of electric energy storage capacity.
However, lithium-lifting capacity storage capacity is not all causes a safety accident, such as battery failure due to capacity “diving”.. The lithium-ion battery system is assembled from hundreds of monomer batches through the string, so the unreliability of the entire battery system will be rapidly enlarged.
. From the data accumulated from domestic pure electric vehicles, the reliability of lithium-ion battery systems is still unsatisfactory..
The fuel power battery has been applied to space aircraft from the 1970s, and the third-generation AFC (nominal / limit power 7.0 / 12.0 / 12.
0 / 12.0kw) produced by the US International Fuel Battery Company (IFC) will later become the standard of American space planes. Power source.
At present, most of the world is oriented in conventional conventional use PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel power battery) as an active lithium battery system. New routines in Russia, South Korea, Australia, Israel and Italy use PEMFC fuel power battery technology, and large PEMFC electric stacks have developed a highly improved reliability in the technical level..
Therefore, the fuel power battery has extremely high reliability. Ambient temperature adaptability is very important because of new energy vehicles, which can adapt to what temperature range can be adapted to the power lithium battery itself..
At present, the performance of the lithium-ion battery in the living environment of zero is not affected, but the problem of zero the zero level is the problem that is urgently needed.. The low temperature performance of lithium electricity is important to the temperature on the conductance of the electrode material, the ion diffusion coefficient and the electrolyte electrical conductivity.
. The viscosity of the electrolyte at low temperature decreases, resulting in a sharp increase in battery polarization. Especially when the lithium ion battery is close to zero, its performance has dropped sharply, and -20 ¡ã C is almost unable to work.
. Moreover, frequent charging at low temperatures will seriously deteriorate the life of the lithium-ion battery, and it is easy to cause the negative electrode to precipitate lithium to bring safety hazards..
After the fuel power battery is started, since the battery itself will exotherm, even at a very low ambient temperature, the temperature of the fuel power battery electric stack will be stabilized in the normal operating temperature range of 80-90 ¡ã C.. Toyota and Honda’s fuel power battery car has been started -30 ¡ã C, but about the fuel power battery, still should continue to increase its performance at low temperatures, -40 ¡ã C is an important goal of the future.
Related Cost Power Lithium Battery involves all aspects of the cost, including cost, cost and infrastructure cost of battery itself. The lithium-ion battery consumes electricity. Its cost is important.
The lithium-ion battery car usually consumes approximately 17 degrees. According to the electricity price, according to 0.5 yuan (family charging) ~ 2.
2 yuan / degree electricity (commercial) Calculate, the cost of consumption is 8.5 ~ 37.4 yuan / 100 kilometers.
The cost price of the lithium-ion battery itself is calculated according to relevant information, and its price is around 8 ~ 9 yuan / kWh.. The infrastructure for lithium-ion battery vehicles is important as charging station.
At present, the company’s infrastructure and power distribution facilities have around 4.3 million yuan..
Fuel power battery consumption is hydrogen, which is costly to consume the price of hydrogen consumption.. At present, my country’s commercialized hydrogen station hydrogen sales price is between 30 ~ 120 yuan / kg (Shanghai Yu Blue Hydrogen Hydrogen station hydrogen price is 40 ~ 45 yuan / kg), according to the one kilometer of hydrogen in the passenger car 100 km , Its cost is 30-120 yuan / 100 kilometers.
The cost of the fuel power battery itself is related to production, and due to foreign fuel power battery vehicles are relatively mature, the cost is relatively low.. According to the relevant information, the cost can be reduced to $ 40 / kW when the fuel power battery output reaches 500,000 units, and the current domestic production is between 1,500,000 / kW due to small production.
. The infrastructure for fuel power battery vehicles is related to the hydrogen station, the construction cost of the hydrogen station is related to its hydrogenation capacity. In general, the greater the hydrogenation capacity, the higher the overall investment price of the hydrogenation station.
. According to the disclosure, the investment scale of the hydrogen station of 500kg / d hydrogen supply capacity is between 1200 and 18 million..
Among them, Nanhai Ruihui Hydrogensta cost is 15.5 million yuan, and the cost of Hydrogen Florida..
At present, my country’s Hydrogen Station has the highest price of Shanghai Hantan Hill Hydrogen Station. This hydrogen station is also the current largest hydrogen station in the world, with a total investment of 55 million yuan..
Policy support regardless of the lithium-ion battery car or fuel power battery car, due to its high cost, the early development of the country has to support the country. On March 26, 2019, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Development and Reform Commission jointly announced the “Notice on Further Improvement of New Energy Automobile Promotion Application and Financial Subsidy Policy”..
The focus includes: 1, the national rehydration is sluggling, the subsidy base is over 50%; 0.1 times and 0.6 times subsidy;.
The policy is related to the fuel power cells: 1, March 26 – June 25 to the transition period, during the period, the sales card fuel power battery car is subsidized according to the standards of the corresponding standards in 2018; 2, Fuel Power Battery Automobile and New Energy Bus Subsidy Policy Another announcement; 3. Local subsidies need to support hydrogenation infrastructure “short board” construction and support service; The mileage requires that the vehicle is completed after the sales card is pre-dialing some subsidy funds..
Moreover, the Department of Industry and Information Technology is jointly in combination with other ministries, which is brewing new subsidy policies for fuel power batteries.. It is understood that the relevant subsidy ideas are not to replenish the vehicle factory as before, but consider subsidizing the manufacturer of core components.
. As can be seen from the above, the subsidies of pure electric power are gradually declining, and the fuel power battery is still large, and from the recent policy, the state attaches great importance to the development of fuel power battery vehicles will gradually move toward formal..
Resource constraints about lithium-ion batteries, the source of resources is important to lithium ore, lithium global reserves are 14 million tons, 2017, the lithium consumption of electric vehicles is about 230,000 tons.. With the rapid development of new energy pure electric vehicles worldwide, it is assumed that the sales of new energy vehicles in 2020 reached 5 million, and the global lithium resource is equivalent to the amount of lithium carbonate.
It will reach 466,000 tons.. With the shortage of lithium resources, the price will also increase the boat, will also be the hidden factor constraints of electric vehicles, so the future of lithium resources is difficult to support the rapid development of electric vehicles.
. The constraints of fuel power batteries in resources are important to platinum..
Platinum is widely used in automotive, industrial, jewelery and investment. Data statistics, platinum in the field of automotive catalysts is the highest, accounting for 37-41% of total demand, is the first large consumption application of platinum..
The catalyst of the fuel power battery is used to use precious metal platinum, and the market is generally worried about its resource constraint.. At present, each hydrogen fuel power battery car platinum is 20 grams to 30 grams.
Toyota Mirai bicycles consumption is about 20g. With the advancement of technology, platinum as a fuel power battery catalyst has been declined in recent years..
Toyota plans to reduce platinum single consumption in the future and achieve catalyst platinum recovery. Therefore, the future of platinum on the development of fuel power cells will not hamper. The environmental protection of the raw material of the lithium-ion battery is electric power.
At present, my country’s power structure is still mainly coal and electricity, and coal-electricity has made great progress in recent years in pollution emissions, but it is still unable to do zero emissions, zero pollution Therefore, the use of lithium-ion batteries has a certain amount of contamination from a certain extent.. The raw material of the fuel power battery is hydrogen, and there are many ways of hydrogen.
With the development of future fuel power battery vehicles, my country is also the largest national renewable energy, and the future hydrogen will basically be made by possible energy, so it can be said Is true zero pollution, zero emissions. Commercial level lithium-ion battery is very mature in my country and worldwide applications. In terms of vehicle, electric vehicles from 2013 to 2015 are from 0 to 1 process, from 2016 to 2018, from 1 to 10, electric car sales continue to rise, current industrial chains are very mature, have fully realized business change.
Fuel Power Battery is currently not very mature in terms of car or other applications, fuel power batteries as vehicles are my country and the world’s primary application direction.. In 2018, my country’s fuel power battery car production was only 1527, but in June 2019, the production of fuel power batteries was completed by 1170 and 1102, respectively, up 7.
2 times and 7.8 times respectively, and the development is very fast. However, since the fuel power battery itself has a high cost, the infrastructure is not perfect, and the most mature Japan of the fuel power battery has not been fully commercialized.
my country is in the early stages of commercialization.. Summarize lithium-ion batteries and fuel power batteries, both in terms of performance, manufacturing, cost, and application, etc.
, use different cars in different scenarios, which can make our new energy car layout more reasonable and improved.. Through the characteristics of the two batteries, it is known that the pure electric movement is more compliant.
At present, the development of industry chain is also more mature. In a considerable period of time, the mainstream status is difficult to be shaken..
The fuel power battery car will be urgent in long-range mileage requirements, and it is possible to concentrate on the use of hydrogen stop bus, heavy trucks, or even ships, and other fie.