Confusion of lithium-ion battery

Confusion of lithium-ion battery

Dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling industry development status, and various difficulties behind. It is not a new thing, why is it in these two years, establishing a dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery system suddenly became an imminent thing? Of course because the new energy car broke out..

Data show that 2015 or 2020, my country’s annual power lithium-ion battery installed capacity rose from 16GWH to 63.6GWH, with an annual complex increase rate of more than 50%. my country’s automobile technology research center data shows that more than 200,000 tons of dynamic lithium-ion batteries in 2020 have more than 200,000 tons (about 25GWH), the market size reaches 10 billion yuan [1].

However, what we see is just the tide head.. Taking into account the average of the average effective life of the power lithium-ion battery and the 5-8 years of use, combined with electric vehicles starting in 2014 rapidly, at the end of 2021, we will usher in the first batch of retired peaks.

. It can be delivered to the new energy car in each time and a ratio in recent years..

As of the end of 2020, my country’s new energy vehicle has reached 4.92 million, of which pure electric vehicles have 4 million units, and new energy vehicles have been more than 1 million in 3 years, as of October 2021, China’s new energy Car retail has exceeded 2.13 million units [2].

The new energy car market rapidly increases means the huge pressure of the bulk of the powerful lithium-ion battery.. According to estimates, in 2025, my country’s retired power lithium-ion battery will approach 800,000 tons [3].

This is a number that is not allowed. If you can’t get proper disposal, such a huge amount of retired battery is not a waste of resources, and it is also very harmful to the environment..

Obviously, how to build a perfect power lithium-ion battery recovery chain has caused a wide concern of the market.. The magnifying light will pass this article, the development status of the industry, as well as the difficulties behind it.

. It is recommended to use this article and the amplification lamp “After reading this article, the lithium-ion battery entry” with reading, experience better 1 Why recover the power lithium-ion battery? Important of promoting dynamic lithium-ion battery recycling industry is two major factors: demand for environmental protection, and economics of precious metal recovery. As we all know, used batteries are a very polluted garbage.

In particular, a large amount of power lithium-ion battery contains a large number of heavy metals, electrolytes, solvents, and various types of organic matter accessories. It combines a variety of contaminants that are highly toxic, and inappropriate disposal will seriously pollute the soil and water source, which will also appear. Toxic gas emissions.

Therefore, simple landfill or incineration is not suitable for handling the dynamic lithium ion battery for retiring – and this is also a waste of resources.. First, although “retiring” power lithium-ion battery, it is not to say that these battery performance is close to the scrap.

. In general, when the capacity of the powered lithium ion battery is attenuated to about 80% to 70% or less, it is no longer suitable for electric vehicles, but 80% ~ 20%, the performance of the power lithium ion battery is still It can meet the energy of many devices, only if the capacity drops to 20%, it is also necessary to force scrap, which is also called the energy value of the battery..

In addition to energy value, the power lithium ion battery also has material regeneration value.. Taking the ternary batteries of one of the two mainstream battery routes as an example, the cobalt metal used is a very rare metal element, the crust content is low, and the distribution is very concentrated, and it is also important to distribute the productivity.

Africa, and cobalt mines are often trapped in production, and often subject to various external factors, such as the interference of the local government.. This causes cobalt prices that have not risen, and then the rose is to go directly to supply chain, so they have a “cobalt grandmother”.

. It is precisely due to the price of cobalt, it has led to a lot of car companies to choose to use 811 ternary batteries (nickel-wateng manganese ratio 8: 1: 1), even cobalt batteries (such as Tesla), or can’t afford to hide Start, direct transformation of lithium iron phosphate ion battery. As more and more car companies announce to abandon the traditional internal combustion engine car and transform electric vehicles, and many countries have implemented automotive electricity or prohibiting traditional internal combustion engines for car electricity or prohibiting traditional internal combustion engines for carbon emissions targets.

It is not a rare metal nickel, and the price of metal elements such as lithium is maintained at a high oscillate, and a mature recycling system has also positively significant on the problem of the current and future supply chain.. 2 Two reuse of the route, using two more common words to describe the reuse direction of the power lithium-ion battery, is “dismantling recovery” and “ladder utilization”.

Although the two are far from the difference, they are typical complementary relationships for the dynamic lithium-ion battery recovery industry rather than mutual exclusion.. In February 2017, the “Interim Measures for the Recycling Management of New Energy Automobile Power Battery Battery” is mentioned that the battery production company and comprehensive utilization company have encouraged to cooperate in the premise of ensuring safety and control.

Multi-level, multi-purpose rational use of waste power storage batteries. So the most ideal power lithium-ion battery recycling industry is to find the retired power lithium-ion battery to find other application scenarios, completely use it, then dismantle the recycled metal elements..

Map of Wanlian Securities [4] However, due to many, the dismantling and recycling route at this stage is much more mature than the trail, and the reality is often the retired battery directly scrapped without any reuse. Detailed over way. Decomposition and recycling, there are two mainstream processing processes for dismantling recovery: fire recycling and wet recycling.

The fire method, also known as incineration method or dry metallurgy, is a high-temperature incinerator to remove an organic binder in the electrode material, while altering the metal and its compound, the low boiling point is recovered in condensation form. The compound is recovered by a metal in the slag, a chemical method, or the like..

The advantage of this process is the advantage of the process of the process of processing, the processing amount is large, the process is simple, the battery is not pretreatment, etc.. However, the fire recovery is one of the relatively primary recycling processes.

There is such as energy consumption, low metal recovery, high equipment requirements, recycling metal needs further refining, will have a poison and harmful gas.. Especially during the fire method, lithium and aluminum remain in smelter slag, further extracting recovery is not economical, which causes fire-proof route to recover lithium, causing waste, such defects in today’s lithium prices in high Bastrophe becomes exceptional.

Wet recovery techniques are metastasis, and transfer metal ions from electrode materials to the leaching medium, and then by ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption, etc. Extraction in solution. The route is currently the mainstream recycling process of domestic.

Figure 丨 光 大 证 [5] compared to the fire process, the process of wet recovery is more complicated, but there is a small amount of energy, low energy consumption, low energy consumption, low energy consumption, temperature, temperature, temperature, low energy consumption, low energy consumption, low energy consumption, low energy consumption, temperature measurement Other advantages and is widely used in the industry to recycle and recycle. The purity of its final product can achieve quality requirements for the production of dynamic lithium-ion battery materials, especially for three-yuan batteries that are relatively expensive for metal materials..

The disadvantage of the wet process is that the battery monomer must be crushed, and the reagent consumption is large, there will be a lot of wastewater that requires subsequent treatment.. In order to further extract from alloy or smelting draft, the metal element is extracted, and the process of recovering the fire recovery and wet recovery will be born.

. Fire-wet combined recovery technology refers to a high-temperature melting, leaching and oxidation, high temperature sintering, etc..

However, compared with a single recycling route, the process of joint recycling is more complicated, with a high technical threshold, and the company has a relatively small company, the most representative is the VAL, which is UMICORE.'EAS process. Picture of Giga Securities [5] In recent years, in addition to the traditional recovery process, there have been electrode repair regeneration technology in recent years.

. This route is to disassemble the electrode material in waste lithium ion batteries, treated with electrochemical or physical chemistry, restore its damaged structure, electrochemical properties, so that the material can be used for use in use or as a preparation Precursor of electrode material. The recovery process mentioned above is also referred to as a chemical method, and there is also physical law and biological law, but these processes are very rare due to various reasons.

. Physical methods include broken flipart and mechanical grinding, but the separation efficiency of valuable metals is extremely low, bad economic benefits, lack of basic premise of commercialization. Biological law uses microbial microbial decomposition metabolism, and the solution of metal ions have been selected to achieve separation with impurities, and finally recovering a variable metal.

. However, biotechnology is currently immature, only staying in the laboratory stage, and there is a small distance from large-scale commercial..

The ladder has been used to remove the disassembly, let’s talk about the use of. The waste battery is secondary, which means that the dynamic lithium ion battery is reached in the design life, which can continue to use in a suitable working position by repair, modified or re-manufacturing..

After the relevant detection, the retired dynamic lithium ion battery determines its performance, it can be used in sequential use of low-power electric vehicles, grid energy storage, home energy storage, and other battery performance, lower than the minimum use standard re-recycle. Interestingly, the domestic ladder is currently using the landmark company that does not appear in the industry, but the cross-border comes..

The recovery model of my country’s tower is to use the emergency power supply of retired dynamic lithium-ion batteries for the base station by cooperating with car enterprises, dynamic lithium-ion battery manufacturers.. As early as 2015, my country Tower has launched a ladder using more than 3,000 base stations in 12 provinces and cities, replacing more old lead-acid batteries for more advanced lithium-ion batteries; in 2018, my country Tower has Stop purchasing lead-acid batteries and carry out ladded out of the country [6].

But just this is only. Today, my country’s Tower’s model is still the most representative ladder, the overall development of the route is slow, as for us, then. If we move the line to the current two technical routes of the current mainstream of the power lithium-ion battery, it can also find that their respective suitable recycling routes are also different.

. In short, the ternary battery is suitable for dismantling recovery, and lithium iron phosphate is more suitable for tradder utilization. This is important because of economic perspective, metal (nickel-lithium cobalt) in ternary materials is high, and lithium iron phosphate has some problems due to the recovery of lithium elements, and the economy is relatively poor.

. This makes the price of the regenerative product of the three-yuan battery have a significant advantage. It can bring enough profit margins.

The previous data shows that the recycling single-ton three-yuan waste battery is about 6,355 yuan / ton, the same conditions are the same. Tons of lithium iron phosphate waste battery is about 312 yuan / ton [7]. The lithium iron phosphate ion battery is suitable for the ladder, in addition to the economic benefits of the recovery materials at this stage, it is also because of its economic life.

. Taking the most common energy storage of the ladder, the importance of battery performance is not high, but it is more important than cost performance..

Although the purchase price of retired ternary batteries is high than the lithium phosphate ion battery, this is also because the metal recovery value, the difference between the two cycle life, and the energy density is not enough to cover additional expenditure, and the security of the ternary battery is also It is not as good as the lithium phosphate ion battery, and the tradder is exactly the additional requirements.. Under the multiple factors, the lithium iron phosphate is more suitable for the ladder and is not directly disassembled.

. 3 Who is the participant? Affected by factors such as sales, usage, technical routes, the participants in the power lithium-ion battery recovery industry are more complicated. Referring to the existing industrial chain mode, the path of power lithium-ion batteries from consumers to the battery manufacturer is divided into three categories: 1.

Recycling by electric vehicle dealers; 2. Recycling through battery rental company, the route The battery finally flowing with the previous route is the power lithium-ion battery manufacturer; 3. The waste battery flows to third-party recycling companies, and the recycling outlets need to be independent, and the final recycling and processing is also from the third-party company.

Finish. Map 丨 GM Securities [5] Under the driving of three basic recovery routes, the power lithium-ion battery recovery industry has formed four basic modes, and also represents four important participants form: 1. New energy automakers Main body: This mode can use the existing sales network of the car enterprise to transfer the enthusiasm.

The network coverage is relatively large, but the defect is that the sales network is not strong, lacks the ability to dispose of the dynamic lithium-ion battery, there is a certain safety hazard; 2, battery The manufacturer is the main body: the advantage of this mode is that the battery manufacturer has high professionalism, which can properly dispose of the recycled battery, but the corresponding recycling network is established, there is an additional operating cost, and the management of battery manufacturers. Relevant related experience lacks; It is universal; 4, the industry alliance is the main body: this new energy field, third-party, battery manufacturers together form an industrial alliance mode advantage in the formation of effective complementaries, all parties give full play to their own advantages, but The key is that it is extremely difficult to expand its pre-expansion, and management is also very complicated. It is necessary to negotiate multi-party negotiation, which will face complex pulling and benefit distribution.

. Figure 丨 东 吴 securities [7] 4 how to do it? The above has talked about why the power lithium-ion battery recovered, how to recycle, and who came to recycle. However, in the end, in the end, it is more suitable for the power lithium-ion battery industry, and even the ice water is more suitable – there is an extremely fatal defect regardless of the dynamic lithium-ion battery, which is an extremely fattened defect.

Not high, commercialization is poor, resulting in serious development of the entire industry today. First, the power lithium-ion battery recovery is extremely non-standard, because the power lithium-ion battery itself is non-standard product, the model is large, only the square, circular, soft bag and the new “blade battery” and “CTP batteries” “Waiting for many routes. There is a big difference in the internal structure of different technical routes, and the corresponding processing method will be different; even if the battery of the same package is different, different products produced by different companies are different from the design, and even the same company.

The dynamic lithium-ion battery mounted in the model is also different. It is necessary to develop targeted recycling processes according to the actual situation..

Further, even the same type of battery, due to the use habit of the owner, the residual performance of the battery is inconsistent, and in subsequent use is still further detection and classification. Complex waste batteries have led to a highly non-standard operational process and diversified technical needs, which has spawned the battery recovery and severely restrictive industrial scale..

Second, although the power lithium-ion battery recovery is very clear, it is a completely different concepts that the road is in the road and the road.. The problem of the ladder is above, we have repeatedly mentioned that the ladder is a very immature route, this is important because of the technology or the market level, the route still faces many difficulties.

. First, from the technical point of view, the ladder is used to determine its performance..

After detecting screening, the retired battery can be reorganized, stabilized the battery pack voltage, current, and finally re-packed and put into use.. However, the battery life prediction model established based on capacity attenuation mechanism is not perfect, and the first link of the entire chain is not related.

It is expected that the industry can have a long-term development.. Secondly from the market perspective, the tradder is really poorly utilized.

. The reverse logistics system involved is quite complicated, many intermediate links, far more trouble than direct disassembly, it is better to recover. Moreover, the complex process is severely piled up with the cost of using the battery, even the stunning battery and the new battery price are in the weird phenomenon – the old is more expensive, how can we persuade the downstream purchaser to choose a ladder? Finally, the safety of the tradder is not complimented.

. The safety performance of the current dynamic lithium-ion battery has always been a significant problem, and many hidden hazards are formed in the use process, such as ionic crystallization in solution leads to internal structural deformation, and the old battery is obviously irresponsible..

This makes it difficult to convince consumers to accept the product.. Even from the national level, the safety of the tradder is also skeptical.

In June this year, the National Energy Administration announced the “New Botility Project Management Specification (Interim)” (Draft for Comment) “, the draft of the comments, indicating that the battery consistency management technology has achieved key breakthroughs, dynamic lithium-ion battery performance monitoring and evaluation system Before that improve, it is necessary to create a new large-scale dynamic lithium-ion battery ladder using energy storage project [8]. In September, the new storage project management specification (provisional) “, removed the above entries, changed to the new power-based lithium-ion battery ladder to use the energy storage project, requiring safety assessment report, establish real-time monitoring platform, etc..

It is necessary to know that the energy storage is already the most promising application scenario of the ladder, but this is a good thing from the country, or reminds the industry too early too early. The problem of disassembling recycling is to dismantle, we can’t ignore, upstream raw materials are in the upstream cycle in these two years, but they can always be in the rise cycle..

Take cobalt as an example, although it has experienced a very crazy rising in the past period, it is far from the high level of the beginning of 2018.. Moreover, the recent raw material price has skyrocketed, the global supply chain caused by the epidemic – the double crisis of logistics is unparalleled, although we can’t predict the crisis will alleviate, but if you are not overlooked.

When the price of raw materials gradually falls, the battery recovery industry will inevitably be further squeezed.. Even if the price of these metal raw materials is not reversible by the supply chain problem, it is not a choice of the car and enterprises.

It is nothing more than the three-yuan battery. Lithium iron..

Although this will make a certain sacrifice in performance, there is no unacceptable traditional manufacturing in the cost of the car, and there is nothing unacceptable, not to accept the breakthrough in battery technology and structural design.. In this way, the battery recovery has not been strong, and it is undoubtedly dustible.

. Worse, it is the industry that does not earn money, has continued to be poisoned by “black heart company”. Yes, battery recovery is still an unfair, unqualified “small workshop” unfolded unlucky industry.

First, the powerful lithium-ion battery compliance is complicated and the review conditions are numerous, leading to very high. How high? In 2018 and 2021, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued two companies that comply with new energy vehicles used to use the company’s standardization conditions, divided into two categories of tradder utilization and regeneration utilization, which is commonly known as a white list company, and the number is full –27 (the first batch of 5, 222), compared with 100,000 tons and still climbed the amount of retired battery, far from the demand. This vacant market naturally became a soil that has been bounted by non-compliance companies.

. Map 丨 GM Securities [5] Second, it must be acknowledged that the power lithium-ion battery recovery is a quite trouble, whether it is eliminating environmental pollution, or treating a diverting part of the battery means cost, and the small workshop is clearly Nothing burden. Compared with the cumbersome recycling process of regular companies, the unqualified small workshop usually uses artificial way to violently dismantle the battery pack.

The sorting process is extremely primitive. This not only has a huge damage to the health of employees, but also with great safety. Hidden dangers – to understand the power lithium-ion battery that is not fully discharged, it will really explode.

In the subsequent process, the small workshop will not be affected by the environmental assessment. It is often illegally emissively emissions or landfill, such as waste liquid, slag, etc., will cause serious pollution to the surrounding environment.

. Ignore the environmental assessment and innovation, which greatly reduces the operating costs of these small workshops, bringing a huge advantage in recycling quotes..

According to the economic observation report, some unsupported battery recovery companies, the quotation of the three-dimensional ion battery is as high as 15,000 yuan / ton, even if the value of lithium iron phosphate ion battery is also up to 12,000 yuan / ton. As a comparison, the recovery price of the regular company is only about 10,000 yuan / ton, or even lower, the competitiveness of both parties is not in the same level [9]. Under such asymmetry, there is a regular company that does not receive the battery, but most of the retired batteries go to the unknown status quo.

. According to industry insiders, about 80% of the power lithium-ion batteries flow directly into the recycling chains of the non-compliant company, disappearing in the small workshop [10]. The deletion of the supply, even in order to obtain the operation of the battery to maintain the operation of the battery, forced to purchase old power lithium-ion batteries from the black market.

The regular company was forced to be one of the promoters of the prosperity of the city, and he had to say that it is also a strange thing.. With a large amount of retirement of a three-yuan battery with a higher value of recycling, it is possible to foreseep the probability of such “inferior coin expelter”.

. The entire industry is still supported by the policy level. Whether it is a more mature regulatory chain, it is very positive for the subsidies of illegal recycling companies, or the subsidies of regular companies.

. Of course, this is another topic..

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com/newslist.php? Types = csjd & id = 2602 [3] Yao Xueqing: better crack the power lithium-ion battery recycling Puzzle | People’s Review. People’s Daily Reviews .

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2021.09 .15 [5] Everbright Securities: Power Equipment New Energy, Environmental Industry Carbon Neutral Report (IV): Power Lithium Ion Battery Recycling, Down and Breakthrough Lithium Constraints, constitutes lithium battery circulation closed loop.

2021.03.24 [6] Wei Wenzhu: [Micro-macro power • High-rise focus] China Tower retired dynamic lithium-ion battery steps use “Raiders”.

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SHTML This article comes from WeChat public account “A large light” (ID: Guokr233), Author: Chen Jingli, editor: ordinary sauce.

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