Battery products standard, especially safety standards, is an important means of regulating market order and promoting technological progress.. This article describes the existing common standards at home and abroad, introduces and summarizes analysis, and briefly discusses the problems in these standard systems.
. I. Foreign Power Lithium Ion Battery Standard Table 1 lists the commonly used lithium-ion battery test standards.
Standard issuance agencies have an important international electrician committee (IEC), International Standardization Organization (ISO), US Insurance Laboratory (UL), American Automotive Engineer Society (SAE), and EU-related institutions, etc.. Table 1 Dynamic Lithium Ion Battery Standard 1 International Standard IEC Released Dynamic Lithium Ion Battery Standards Important with IEC62660-1:2010 “Electric Road Vehicle Lithium ion Power Battery Uniform Part 1: Performance Test” and IEC62660-2 : 2010 “Electric Road Vehicle Lithium Ion Power Battery Unit Part 2: Reliability and Abuse Test”.
UN38.3 issued by the United Nations Transport Committee issued by the United Nations Recommendation and Test Manual for Dangerous Goods Transportation, the requirements for lithium-ion battery testing is for the safety of batteries during transportation..
ISO’s standards in the dynamic lithium-ion battery have ISO12405-1:2011 “Electric drive vehicles – lithium ion power lithium battery packs and system test procedures Part 1: High power applications”, ISO12405-2:2012 “electric drive Vehicles – Lithium Ion Dynamic Lithium Batches and System Test Regulations Part 2: High Energy Application “and ISO12405-3:2014” Electric Drive Vehicles – Lithium Ion Power Lithium Battery Package and System Test Procedures Part 3: Security Requirements “, For high-power batteries, high-energy batteries, and security performance requirements, the purpose is to supply alternative test items and test methods for the vehicle factory.. 2 US standard UL2580: 2011 “electric vehicle battery” Important evaluation battery abuse reliability and the ability to protect people during the abuse of hazards, this standard is revised in 2013.
SAE has a huge, perfect standard system in the automotive sector. SAEJ2464: 2009 promulgated in 2009, “Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage system security and abuse” is a batch of automobile batteries applied to North America and global regions, clearly pointed out The scope of the test item and the data to be collected, and the number of samples required for the test project is also given suggestions..
2011 SAEJ2929: 2011 “Electric and Hybrid Lithium Battery System Safety Standard” is SAE’s safety standards proposed in various powered lithium batteries issued before summing up, including two parts: electric vehicles may Regular case test and abnormal conditions. SAEJ2380: 2013 “Vibration Test of Electric Vehicle Battery” is a classic standard for the vibration test of electric vehicle batteries, based on the statistical results of the vibration load spectrum collection of the actual vehicle road, the test method is more in line with the vibration of the actual vehicle, with Important reference value. 3 Other Organizational Standards US Energy (DOE) important responsibility energy policy development, energy industry management and energy related technology research and development, etc.
. In 2002, the US government has set up a “Freedomcar” project, which has been awarded Freedomcar power helper hybrid electric vehicle battery test manual and electric and hybrid vehicle energy storage system abuse test manual..
The German Automotive Industry Association (VDA) is a association composed of Germany’s various standards of the unified domestic auto industry. The standards issued by VDA2007 “hybrid vehicle battery system test” are important for the lithium-ion battery system for hybrid vehicles. Performance and reliability test.
The Unified Provisions of the European Economic Commission (ECE) R100.2 on the special requirements of electric vehicles “is the specific requirements for ECE for electric vehicles, and the whole is divided into two parts: the first part on the vehicle in motor protection, 4 aspects such as rechargeable energy storage system, functional safety and hydrogen emissions are specified, and the second part is a specific requirement for new security and reliability for rechargeable energy storage systems..
Second, China Power Lithium Ion Battery Standard 2001. This standard system references IEC61960-2:2000 “Portable lithium-ion batteries and battery packs] Lithium-ion battery packs, lithium-ion batteries and battery packs for portable devices, test content including performance and security, but only Battery for 21.6V and 14.
4V. In 2006, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the QC / T743 “lithium-ion power storage battery for electric vehicles”, which was widely used in the industry, and revised in 2012..
GB / Z18333.1: 2001 and QC / T743: 2006 are all standards for monomers and module levels, the application range is narrow, and the test content is not adapted to the demand for rapidly developed electric automotive industries..
In 2015, the National Standardization Management Committee promulgated a series of standards, GB / T31484-2015 “Electric vehicle power storage battery circulation service requirements and test methods”, “electric vehicle power storage battery safety requirements and test methods”, “Electric Vehicle Dynamic Battery Electricity Requirements and Test Method” and GB / T31467.1-2015 “Lithium Ion Dynamic Battery Pack and System – Part 1 High Power Application Test Process, GB / T31467. 2-2015 “Lithium ion power battery pack and system for electric vehicles Part 2 High energy application test procedures, GB / T31467.
3″ Lithium ion power battery system test procedures for electric vehicles Part 3 Safety requirements and test methods. GB / T31485-2015 and GB / T31486-2015 are for the safety and electrical performance of monomer / modules, GB / T31467-2015 series refer to ISO12405 series, suitable for testing of battery packs or battery systems, while GB / T31484 -2015 is a test standard for circulating life. With regard to standard cycle life of the monomer and modules, the battery pack and system adopt a working condition.
In 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced the “electric passenger car safety technical conditions”, from the perspective of people’s electric shock, water dust protection, fire protection, charging safety, collision safety, remote monitoring, etc., fully borrowed from existing traditional passenger cars, electric vehicles related Standards and Shanghai, Beijing and other local standards, a higher technical requirement for power lithium batteries, added two test items for thermal out-of-control and thermal out-control expansion, which officially implemented on January 1, 2017. Table 2 The standard three-domestic power lithium-ion battery standard three, domestic and foreign dynamic lithium-ion battery standard analysis Domestic and foreign dynamic lithium-ion battery standard analysis is the national standard in 2010, promulgated, re-revised, and one after another There is a new standard.
GB / Z18333.1: 2001 is issued in 2001, which shows that my country’s electric car lithium-ion battery standard is not late in the world, but the development is relatively slow. Since the 2006 QC / T743 standard announced, my country has no standard update for a long time, and before the 2015 new national standard announced, there is no standard for battery packs or systems.
. The above domestic and international standards has differently in applicable scope, test items, test items, and judgment guidelines..
1 Applicable range IEC62660 series, QC / T743, GB / T31486 and GB / T31485 are tested for battery monomers and module levels, UL2580, SAEJ2929, ISO12405, and GB / T31467 series suitable for testing of battery packs and battery systems. In addition to IEC62660, other standards basically involve battery packs or system level tests, SAEJ2929 and ECER100.2 even mentioned at the whole vehicle level test.
This means that foreign standards have developed more than the application of the battery in the whole vehicle, which is more in line with the practical application.. 2 Test item content All test items can be divided into two major classes of electrical properties and security, while safe reliability, environmental reliability, reliability, and electrical reliability.
. Mechanical reliability, simulating mechanical stress that the vehicle is driven during driving, such as vibration simulation of bumps on the road surface; environmental reliability, simulating the tolerance of vehicles in different climates, such as temperature cycles simulates the vehicle The temperature difference between day and night is large or in the cold and hot areas; abuse reliability, such as fire, investigate the safety of the battery in the case of improper use; electrical reliability, such as protection test items, important is to investigate battery management System (BMS) can be protected when it is critical. In battery cells, IEC62660 is divided into two independent standard IEC62660-1 and IEC62660-2, corresponding performance and reliability testing respectively.
. GB / T31485 and GB / T31486 are evolved by QC / T743, and the vibration-resistant belongs are performance tests in GB / T31486 because the test item is to investigate the effect of battery vibration on battery performance..
Compared to IEC62660-2, GB / T31485 test items are more stringent, such as adding acupuncture and sea water soaking, etc.. In terms of testing of battery packs and battery systems, whether it is electrical or reliability, US standard covered test items.
In terms of performance test, DOE / ID-11069 has a mixed pulse power characteristic (HPPC) than other standards, running set point stability, calendar life, reference performance, impedance spectrum, module control test, thermal management load And the system level test of the combined life verification, etc.. The analysis method of the electrical performance test results in detail in the standard appendix, wherein the HPPC test can be used to detect the peak power of the power lithium battery, thereby derived DC internal resistance test method, has been widely used for internal resistance characteristics of the battery.
. In terms of reliability, the UL2580 is more than other standards, with: non-balanced battery pack charging, pressure, insulation, sustainability test and cooling / heating stabilization system fault test, etc., also contains the production line for battery pack components.
Basic safety test, in terms of BMS, cooling system and protection line design, strengthen security review requirements. SAEJ2929 proposes to analyze the various parts of the battery system, and save related document materials, including improved measures to identify faults..
ISO12405 series standards also include battery performance and security, ISO12405-1 is a battery performance test standard for high-power applications, and ISO12405-2 is a battery performance test standard for high-energy applications. The former is more cold start and thermal start. Item content.
The GB / T31467 series combines my country’s dynamic lithium battery development status, which is modified according to the content of the ISO12405 series.. Unlike other standards: SAEJ2929 and ECER 100.
2 involve high-pressure protection requirements, belonging to electric vehicles. my country’s related test items in GB / T18384, pointing out that the battery packs and battery systems must meet the relevant requirements of GB / T18384.1 and GB / T18384.
3 before conducting safety tests.. 3 Strict levels about the same test items, the test methods and judgments specified in different standards are not the same.
For example, the sample is required for the tester, and the sample is required in GB / T31467.3. The power type battery SOC is 50% in ISO12405, and the energy battery SOC is 100%; ECER 100.
2 requires a battery. SOC is more than 50%; UN38.3 has different requirements for different test items, and some test items are also looped.
. In addition, highly simulated, thermal tests, vibrations, impacts, and foreign shorts must be tested with the same sample, relatively strict. Regarding the vibration test, ISO12405 requires samples to vibrate at different ambient temperatures.
The recommended high temperature and low temperature temperatures are 75 ¡ã C and -40 ¡ã C, respectively, and other standards have no requirements.. About the fire test, the experimental methods and parameter settings in GB / T31467.
3 and the ISO12405.3 differ, all of which are preheated by ignition fuel, direct fire and indirect fire, but GB / T31467.3 requires samples There is a flame that must be extinguished within 2 minutes.
The ISO12405 does not require the flame, and the fire test and the first two in SAEJ2929 are different. It requires the sample to be placed in the heat radiation container, and the temperature is rapidly warmed to 890 ¡ã C in 90S and remains 10 min. And do not have any components or substances through a metal mesh that is placed outside the test sample.
IV. In the shortcomings of existing domestic standards, although the development and announcement of relevant national standards fills the blanks of my country’s dynamic lithium-ion battery combination system, and is widely used, but there is still enough. Test object: All standards only specify new batteries tests, there is no relevant regulations and requirements for the used batteries, the battery is not issued at the factory, does not mean safe after using it, so it is necessary to use different times Battery for the same test, equivalent to regular medical examination.
Results Decision: The current judgment is broad and single, only without leak, no outer casing, can’t afford the fire and non-explosion, lack of quantitative judgment system. European Automotive Research and Technology Development Committee (Eucar) divides the system’s harm into eight levels, with certain reference significance. Test items: GB / T31467.
3 lacks test content in thermal management and thermal loss of control, and hot safety performance is critical to the battery, how to control the thermal out of control of the unit cell Not spread, it is of great significance, the mandatory implementation of “electric passenger car safety technical conditions” also explains this. In addition, since the vehicle application level, there is a need for a new increasing performance test after the end of the test, and the simulated vehicle has undergone environmental changes after the end of the experiment..
Test method: battery pack and battery system cycle life test consumption is too long, affecting product development cycles, difficult to implement, how to develop reasonable accelerated cycle life test is a difficult point. V. Summary In recent years, my country has made great progress in the standard development and application of dynamic lithium-ion batteries, but there is still a certain gap between foreign standards.
. In addition to testing standards, my country’s lithium-ion battery in other aspects is gradually improved..
On November 9, 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced the “Comprehensive Standardization Technical System of Lithium Ion Battery”, which points to the future standard system including basic general, materials and components, design and manufacturing process, manufacturing and testing equipment, battery products, etc. Part, where the security standard relationship is high, with the update and development of the power lithium battery product, the test standard also enhances the corresponding test test technique, which in turn enhances the safety level of the power lithium batte.