Challenges of charging lithium battery technology in battery materials and processes

Challenges of charging lithium battery technology in battery materials and processes

According to foreign media reports, the new generation of electric cars started on the road from 10 years ago.. The researchers of the Georgia Institute of Technology have taken a year, tracking nearly 500 US drivers’ driving habits, aiming to confirm whether the electric cars are suitable for this group.

Researchers found that nearly one-third of the respondents said he (she) can complete the vast majority of travel with electric vehicles with 100 miles (about 160 kilometers).. Only 6% of the travel distance involved, it may be necessary to use the power to travel back, or rent a gasoline vehicle.

Today, the development of electric cars is better.. Many electric car life has not only 200 miles (about 320 km), some large size, high-end models of endless miles can even reach nearly 400 kilometers.

After all, there are still many potential car purchases worried that the vehicle is exhausted in halfway.. Long-life version of the battery can alleviate the user’s “electric vehicle mileage anxiety”, but “there is a lot of pit to fill”.

Many electric vehicles are equipped with lithium-ion batteries. This product is Sony’s commercial battery design in 1991. The battery is particularly high in capacity.

. At present, the energy density of electric vehicle car batteries is usually 200Wh / kg, and contemporary lithium-ion batteries can inject 200Watt – HOUR’s potential into 1 kg of battery kit (KIT). This data is 5 times that of the old lead-acid battery, and the researchers are continuous research and improvement, designed to improve lithium-ion battery performance.

. The name of the lithium-ion battery is taken from the lithium ion inside it..

However, when this type of battery is discharged, the anode will appear lithium ions.. Then, the lithium ion will pass through the battery separator (only lithium ions can pass) into the electrolyte, and then spread to the cathode.

The electrons of the anode will disappear, enter the cathode along the external circuit. The current that occurs during this process will be used to drive the motor. In the cathode position, ion and electronization recombination.

This situation will continue until the user connects the vehicle and the charging device through the charging cable, the entire process will reverse. With regard to the weight sensitive application of vehicles, lithium metal is the lightest metal in the cycle table of chemical elements, but the metal (chemical) reactivity is also high..

The construction of the battery should be very cautious, prevent flaws, otherwise it will cause battery short circuit and even the battery fire accident.. The anode is typically composed of carbon-richmaterial, and lithium metal in the cathode is often easily oxidized, thereby generating lithium cobalt oxide (LithiumCoBaltoxide).

. Cobalt metal is the most expensive battery material, and battery manufacturers have tried to reduce the amount of use of the material..

Many cobalt mines are located in Democratic Republic of the Congo, while mining conditions are very bad, even with child labor.. The mainstream thinking of the industry is to reduce the amount of electroCC metal in the lithium ion battery while taking the amount of nickel and manganese in order to produce NMC batteries (three-yuan lithium ion battery).

. Last year, my country’s largest battery manufacturer – Catl starts to mass produce NMC batteries, and its energy density reaches 240Wh / kg..

Other companies such as TSLA hopes to further reduce or even get rid of reliance on cobalt metal, but TSLA has a fine content of its battery plan.. In order to reduce the cost of the battery material, with the production of CATL, TSLA and other opponents, the price of such batteries will drop steadily.

According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, the average price of lithium-ion batteries in 2012 is $ 1,160 / kWh (about 8204.68 yuan / kW). By 2024, the price will be less than $ 100 / kWh (about 707.

3 yuan / kW) (see chart). At that time, compared with the internal combustion tram, the competitive advantage of electric vehicles will be larger..

In order to improve the number of electric vehicles, many industry insiders hope to put them on solid batteries, rather than liquid batteries.. Lithium ions can pass a certain type of solid electrolyte “tunnelthrough”.

This type of battery is higher, and other electrolyte materials are also expected to achieve higher energy density.. In the latest solid state battery methods, Samsuki has put forward a design in South Korea and Japan’s laboratories.

. This design uses an anode of NMC cathode, silver and carbon complexes and a solid electrolyte based on a sulfur silver germanium substrate..

According to the paper announced in March this year, the energy density of such batteries is 900Wh / L, which means that the capacity of new batteries has been achieved compared to traditional lithium-ion batteries, under established (equivalent) volume.. The research team expects the energy density of the battery to be 430Wh / kg, thereby raising the number of battery life to 800 kilometers.

. The battery based on the sulfur silver germanium substrate does not appear a needle crystal called a lithium crystal crystal graft, which is usually generated when charging a lithium ion battery..

The team said that compared to the current battery, the solid lithium-ion battery is more cost effective. Unfortunately, the researchers said that it is still difficult to determine when the battery can be used, nor is it possible to mass production of the battery, which is a common problem of battery equipment..

Ausugammanthiram, a battery expert in Austin, Texas, pointed out that two major problems in the process of solid state battery development. First, the solid state (electrode and electrolyte) is placed in the face to face, which will only be limited to the contact point passed between electrolytes and electrodes..

In contrast, the contact point of liquid and solid-state (electrode and electrolyte) is sustained.. There is a way to overcome the problem, that is, a polymer electrolyte (polymerelectrolyte), but the flexibility of the material is high enough to ensure its surface energy and solid electrodes.

. Dr. Manthiram commented: “Hey, we have not found good polymer materials.

“The second question is manufacturing. Many solid electrolytes are ceramic materials, which is very easy to break, which leads to problems in mass production, but polymers can prevent such problems..

However, it is still necessary to face the previous problem – the selection of polymers. In addition, the new ideas in the field of lithium-ion battery technology have been mature enough, and the previous stakeholders will be forced to go out..

Developing from the liquid electrolyte to solid-state electrolytes, this means establishing a new factory with high cost. In addition, developing a better liquid electrolyte, using a matching new electrode may be the most reliable technology route towards the safety of more powerful lithium ion batteries.

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